LED Lighting Basics summary
1. The color temperature and brightness
Color Temperature (Co1or Temperature)
Unit: absolute temperature (Kelvin, K)
K color temperature to represent the absolute temperature, is a standard blackbody (such as platinum) is heated, the temperature rises to a certain extent when the color began to red, orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo (blue-violet), purple, gradually change, with such changes in the characteristics of light color, its color and the blackbody light source light hue, we will call the temperature of the blackbody at the time the color temperature of the light source. When the color temperature of about 3000K, light yellow color. 5000K color temperature is above, light color blue. Different color temperature of light, with different lighting and visual effects. Different color temperatures corresponding to different colors of light in the following figure. Giving the eyes caused by different wavelengths of different color perception, from red, orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo (blue-violet), purple. The sensitivity of the eye changes with the wavelength of which varies strongly.
For example, under good lighting conditions, the eye sensitivity to light of wavelength 550nm (yellow) is 20 times as red or blue. This is why most of the car's fog lights and street lights use a yellow important reason. Color temperature is a measure of the standard color temperature, not measure the brightness of the lamp. Halogen 2300K color temperature can be made to 7000K; HID lamp color temperature from 4200K to over 8000K; the higher the color temperature of light, its fog and rain penetration worse (not light). Manufacturers such as Philips has produced only the highest color temperature of 6000K Xenon lights. The following is a different color temperature performance:
Light color temperature of the light effect
3000K yellow light, strong penetrating power
4200K white with yellow, the original car with xenon lights
5000K light all white, the color temperature of the highest European regulations
6000K light all white, bluish
6500K under the sun during the day
Significantly bluish white 7000-8000K
8000K above blue light, poor penetration recommended color temperature of about 6000K is just slightly the white color temperature began to turn blue, the human eye is easy to accept, fatigue, increased security, and the halogen is poor.
2. Select the LED light source need to focus on nine basic performance
As the herd of market, as consumers, the choice is still to be calm, scientific analysis, the choice of the best cost-effective light sources and lamps, here are some of the basic properties:
1, brightness of different brightness, different prices. For lamps shall comply with the Laser Class Class Ⅰ standards.
2, antistatic ability antistatic ability and long life, and therefore higher prices. Usually static than 700V can be used for lighting.
3, wavelength wavelength coherent, consistent color, such as requiring the same color, the price is high. No spectral separation device manufacturers is difficult to produce pure colors.
4, the leakage current is one-way conductive light, if there is reverse current is called leakage, leakage current is large, short life, low prices.
5, which uses a different light angle light angle is not the same. Special light-emitting angle, and higher prices. If all diffusion angle, higher prices.
6, different quality of life is the key to life, life is determined by the light fades. Light decay, long life, long life, high price.
7, wafer wafer luminous body, different chips, prices vary widely. Japan, the United States more expensive chips, chip prices are generally lower than that made in Taiwan and Japan, the United States.
8, the size of the size of the wafer to wafer side, said large wafer quality is better than small chips. Chip size is proportional to the price of the same.
9, colloidal colloidal ordinary general epoxy, plus a UV resistant and fire retardant price of expensive, high-quality outdoor lighting should be UV and fire. Each product will have different designs, different designs for different uses, lighting design reliability include: electrical safety, fire safety, applicable environmental safety, mechanical safety, health and safety, safe use of time and other factors. From electrical safety point of view, should comply with the relevant international and national standards.
Because it is a new product, the Chinese national standard lag, but the state provides product qualification testing. With international safety certification (such as GS, CE, UL, etc.) and national product quality certification of lighting the price is higher, because these products are designed to be safe and reliable. Consumer attention is to carefully identify the certificate of authenticity, there are now international safety certification and national product certification are not many manufacturers.
From the health aspect, the use of non-toxic materials designed product prices to be high, especially indoor lighting, do not choose the smell of cheap lighting, currently only a handful of manufacturers are producing non-toxic materials, can be directly used to identify ways respectively nose, the smell of the product much lower price than those without odor. Professionals need a similar analysis of lead, mercury, cadmium and other toxins. From the application of environmental security perspective, a reliable dust-proof design, material fire, UV, anti-low temperature cracking product prices high.
3, the difference Spotlights and floodlights
What is LED Flood light ?
LED Flood light (LEDDownlight) also known as the spotlight, lights, spotlights, etc., mainly used for architectural lighting purposes, as well as commercial space lighting, decorative components heavier, its appearance also have well-rounded because generally have reason to consider the heat, and therefore its shape with the traditional flood light, there are some differences.
LED flood light features:
Currently available conventional LED Spotlights are basically chosen 1W high power LED (each LED element will be made of PMMA with a high-efficiency lens, its main function is secondary distribution of light emitted from the LED, which is the second secondary optics), there are a few companies because cooling technology handled well, and even the choice of a higher power 3W LED. Suitable for large occasions cast lighting, building lighting.
Spotlights What things need to pay attention to it?
1, high purity aluminum reflector, beam the most accurate reflection best.
2, symmetric narrow-angle, wide angle and asymmetrical light distribution system.
3. Replace the bulb behind the open type, easy to maintain.
4, with the scale plate lamps are easy to adjust illumination angle.
LED flood light
control through the built microchips, in a small engineering applications, you can not control use, to achieve a gradual, transition, color flashes, random flashing, alternating gradient and other dynamic effects can also be controlled via DMX, achieve chase, scan results. Currently, the main application areas are about these: single building, historical buildings exterior lighting, light outside the building through lighting, indoor local lighting, green landscape lighting, billboard, specialized medical and cultural facilities, such as lighting, bars, discos and other entertainment atmosphere, lighting and so on.
What is LED floodlights?
LED Flood light is a possible exposure to a uniform point source in all directions, it's the illuminated area can be adjusted, the performance of a regular octahedron shown in the scene. Flood lights in effect, making them one of the most widely used light source, standard floodlights used to illuminate the entire scene. Scenarios can be applied more floodlights to produce better results. Flood light is, in effect, one of the most widely used light source in the scene can be more floodlights coordinating role in the birth of good results. From a specific point uniformly irradiated object in all directions, using it to simulate the light bulbs and candles better and better. Flood lights can be placed anywhere in the scene. For example, the camera can be placed outside the scope of, or inside of objects. In the scene in the distance using a number of different colors floodlights are very common. These floodlights can cast a dark and mixed on the model. Floodlights illuminated area is relatively large, so the flood lights illuminated the effect is very easy to predict, and this light there are many secondary uses, such as the floodlights placed near the surface of the position, then the surface produced on a bright light.
It should be noted that the flood lights can not build too much, otherwise the effect will be very plain and dull figure. So to the usual renderings production, lighting and more attention to appreciate the impact parameter and the layout of the entire scene renderings sense of light generated more experience, have a good mix of lighting techniques.
Flood light features:
Flood lights from a specific point uniformly irradiated object in all directions, using it to simulate the light bulbs and candles better and better. Floodlights can be placed anywhere in the scene. For example, the camera can be placed outside the scope of, or inside of objects. In the scene in the distance using a number of different colors floodlights are very common. These flood lights
can cast a dark and mixed on the model. Floodlights illuminated area is relatively large, so the floodlights illuminated the effect is very easy to predict, and this light there are many secondary uses, such as the floodlights placed near the surface of the position, then the surface produced on a bright light.
Ground: lighting requirements of the specification must have good wiring and grounding, I type lamps becomes ungrounded approximate 0 type lamps;
Allowable voltage fluctuation: HCI ceramic metal halide, HQI quartz metal halide and high pressure sodium lamps require NAV voltage fluctuations in a short time should not exceed the range of +/- 5% of the long-term allowable fluctuation range +/- 3%, compared with a large voltage change will shorten lamp life and cause a shifting of color;
Use of light: the frequent switching will shorten the life of the lamp;
Ballast: The distance between the light source and ballast is restricted, usually not more than 3 m;
Starting current: HCI, HQI and NAV according to different ballasts, lamp starting current can be up to two times the operating current, the circuit design must consider the current or the switch is easy to trip;
Flux: light at the point of 100-300 hours parameter is relatively stable, T-type and the TS-type burning position is horizontal, vertical and E-type lamp on, when different burning position of the light source, the luminous flux, color temperature and even life are There are significant differences;
Deviation of color: color deviations may exist between all for metal halide HQI and HCI, lamps and lights, the color deviation is due to the supply voltage, the ballast and the lighting design and other external factors, lamp Factors color temperature consistency:
Internal factors: the consistency of the arc tube (filling amount of mercury, the electrode gap, volume, status and size, etc.) determines the lamp power and the consistency of cold spot temperature, which affects the density of the halides, thus determining the correlated color temperature of light consistency. At present, the international advanced level, with a number of correlated color temperature of the light source factory tolerances can be controlled at about +/- 100K, while the domestic advanced level of around +/- 300K. For 3000K metal halide lamp, this difference 600K color temperature can easily be felt with the naked eye.
External: Different burning position may differ 600K, supply voltage parameters, matching capacitance, relevant industry standards, rated power below 400W, ballast regulation shall be ≤10%; but supporting the Thai constant power electronic ballast lighting converter, you can very well prevent the color temperature deviation.
Number of installations: Light recommend a branch road parallel with no more than four, in order to reduce the voltage changes, phase to phase voltage will result in a different light color cast problems, such as the degree of customer control and color have special requirements Customers are advised to choose HCI ceramic metal halide light source, supporting the constant power metal halide electronic ballast, more expensive;
Buried lights installation matters: Buried lights installed outside the barrel embedded in the installation source, be sure to use a good glass pressed waterproof silicone to tighten the screws diagonally uniform, can not be installed in the square driveway Conventional production HID class 0.5 meters underground lamp aside three-core cable, external line use waterproof box, waterproof rating requirements IP67, the company is not equipped with factory waterproof box (available separately to the company), buried lights must have 20CM more hydrophobic layer, preferably with sparse ditch; 10, underwater lights installation matters: regular production of underwater lights aside one meter three-core cable, external line use waterproof box, waterproof rating requirements IP68, the company manufactured not equipped with waterproof box (available separately to the company), for safety reasons, underwater lights generally requires a transformer waterproof rating of IP44, so the underwater light electric shock level for class III, transformer must be installed in the pond shore, can not installed underwater;
Pan (cast) light installation matters: pan (cast) light source when installing, pressed glass good waterproof silicone, floodlights can adjust the angle of the lighting design requirements, all pan (cast) light, buried lamps and wall lamps, can not be hidden object occlusion, this distance on the product's label has noted, all lamps can not be installed on combustible surfaces (combustible surface is defined as 130 degrees can burn the body)